Fluid requirements are individual and a single recommended water intake that is applicable to everyone is difficult to define and can vary greatly, even on a day-to-day basis, as there are many factors that affect an individual’s need for water, such as age, gender, body mass, physical activity levels and climate. Experts recognise that a regular intake of water is necessary for maintaining water balance and that water is a nutrient essential for life and health.
How much water should we be drinking?
The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) recommends an intake of 2.5 litres of water for men and 2.0 litres of water for women per day, via food and drink consumption. Of this, they suggest that 70-80% of the daily water intake should come from drinks, and the remaining 20-30% should come from food. The British Nutrition Foundation gives guidelines for the types of fluid to drink, and water is the only fluid which they recommend drinking “plenty” ofas it contains no sugar, calories or additives. In spite of this, research shows we still don’t drink enough of it.
Do natural source waters vary nutritionally?
All plain water contains no calories or sugar. The mineral content of natural source waters can vary depending on the geology of the land where they come from. For example some waters are naturally higher in calcium or magnesium.
Why do natural source waters vary in taste?
Natural source waters have different concentrations of minerals in them, depending on the geology of the land that they come from, which gives each natural source water its taste.
How much magnesium is in natural source waters?
The amount of magnesium in natural source waters varies depending on the geology of the land. Levels are usually around 5mg/litre – 50mg/litre. The main sources of magnesium are vegetables and milk.
Can switching from tap water to natural source waters lead to a magnesium deficiency?
No. Water is not a significant source of magnesium, therefore switching from tap water to natural source waters or vice versa will not have a significant impact on your magnesium levels.
Can you hydrate as well with sparkling water as with still water?
Yes, both still and sparkling water hydrate as well as each other.
Does sparkling water contain calories or sugar?
No. Whether it’s still or sparkling, plain water does not contain any calories or sugar.
Is sparkling water bad for your teeth?
When looking at dental health, plain water (tap, still or sparkling) is an excellent drink of choice. Some sparkling waters have a lower pH than still water. Drinks with low pH values can have higher erosive potential than those with a neutral or alkaline pH. However, you would have to drink sparkling water on a regular basis for a long period for this to be a cause for concern.
To put this into context, the average person in the UK drinks just 5.9 litres per year of sparkling water (Zenith International UK Bottled Water Drinks Report, June 2018)
What pH level would be considered low?
Anything with a pH below 5.5 may have higher erosive potential than those with a neutral or alkaline pH. However, you would have to drink sparkling water on a regular basis for a long period for this to be a cause for concern.
Does sparkling water contain additives?
Carbon dioxide can be added to the water; however, nothing else can be added to naturally sourced water. Naturally sourced water can also be naturally sparkling.
Does this mean sparkling water isn’t naturally sparkling?
Some sparkling waters are naturally carbonated. Others have their natural carbonation adjusted by the addition or removal of carbon dioxide to make them sparkling water. Others are plain water to which carbon dioxide is added.
Does sparkling water cause low bone density?
There is no scientific evidence to support this concern. There have been studies that look at the effects of carbonated soft drinks on bone density but these do not include water.
How much salt is there in sparkling water?
The amount of salt in sparkling water will vary from brand to brand depending on the geology of the land that they come from as the minerals are naturally occurring. The amount of sodium there is in bottled water is listed on the label.
Should I be concerned about the salt levels in sparkling water?
No. The salt levels in sparkling water are significantly below health guidelines and pose no health concerns.
The UK and EU set a maximum limit for sodium in bottled water which is 200mg/l and all naturally sourced waters are below this limit. The limit is set for taste reasons and not for health concerns (WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water, fourth edition, 2011).